I was recently forwarded an article on a gentleman who won a large sum of money ($8.75 million) for an asbestos related disease. There are many people getting these types of settlements for similar exposures.

However, what is interesting, is the attorneys argued the company knew about asbestos in 1965, but the exposure occurred in the 1970’s. Keep in mind, the asbestos rules at OSHA didn’t come out until the 1970s as well. So, exposure occurred before the regulations were in effect.

So, they knew of the airborne hazard, but continued to exposure workers before there was a rule. Does this sound like any modern day issue?   –hint– silica?!

Nowadays with the public being uber-aware of “potential” airborne hazards (mold?), with information so readily available, with OSHA rules outdated (annotated Z1 tables), and others publishing health standards like ACGIH,….the lesson is: protect your employees.

I don’t think we should be arguing about the OSHA rules. Let’s use available information and science. “More Than Just A Number” (article published by AIHA, May 24, 2016).

asbestos snow

I have given many safety training presentations (as you have, I’m sure). If you are lucky, the owner/president of the company will have a few words to say to the group.  I am sometimes amazed at what they say (or don’t say). Below are my tips and suggestions.

What to say:

  • Thank the employees for working and the contribution they make
  • We take your health & safety VERY seriously
  • Look out for your own safety, AND the safety of others
  • Thank your company safety director/coordinator/consultant
    • Support them and listen to them
    • Do what they ask you to do and pass it along to others
  • We want our employees to:
    • Go home to your friends & family
    • Enjoy your life – injury free. Now, and in the future.

What NOT to say:

  • We spend a lot of  money on safety
    • “Bob got his hand cut, and it cost us $1,200”
    • “We had to pay $1,200 in OSHA citations”
  • Don’t be stupid”  (thereby implying that accidents are generated from stupid people)
  • Our insurance costs are high because you are getting hurt.
  • I will give you ____ if you don’t get hurt (thereby encouraging under-reporting of injuries)


It’s probably not a new disease, but there are more cases being discovered for type of cancer called, peritoneal mesothelioma. This cancer is found in the stomach, and is cause from eating asbestos (probably not on purpose, but through the body’s normal ability to capture particulates). They are calling this cancer the “third wave”, in addition to asbestosis and mesothelioma (in lungs).

The Center for Public Integrity released a video and article on a dramatic case, Kris Penny, on Dec 17, 2015. NPR picked it up and posted it here. Hopefully more people will be aware of this type of cancer and it can be better reported/diagnosed.

In a related article, from Newser, they suppose this type of cancer is from home exposures, rather than occupational. This information was based upon Australia’s Asbestos Safety & Eradication Agency‘s 2015 report.  They claim:

  • 40.64% (568) of people had exposures from non-occupational exposures (they are self reporting for the Australian registry).
  • 20% (280) of all registration of exposure were women.
  • 62.6% (876) of reported exposures were under the age of 49
  • The “third wave” of asbestos exposures will be from DIYs


asbestos reports

Unfortunately new exposures are still occuring, especially in developing countries. There is an effort to stop asbestos use in these countries, and you can join one group, Global Alliance Against Asbestos.

Confession: I missed the assessment of this hazard the first time.

Awhile back I performed air sampling during aluminum welding. The welders were cordial and let me crawl over their welding equipment, poke around old boxes of wire and metal stock. I did not think there were any “real” hazards. We did find some airborne levels of various metals. From the picture can you tell who did the most welding?

welding mce

After I had performed the sampling and the report was sent, I was asked if I had checked for ozone (O3)? I admitted I hadn’t and asked if it was an issue? Well, apparently it is (or rather, might be).

I went back to the shop, begged for another chance, and performed ozone sampling. It wasn’t difficult, but eating crow was the hardest part.

More information on the subject can be found at: NIOSHUK- HSE. Ozone is formed when the UV radiation hits oxygen. The ACGIH TLV is variable (see table below)ozone acgih, and the OSHA PEL is 0.1 ppm.

Health: Ozone, O3, can cause lots of different respiratory illnesses. These can include a decrease in lung function, aggravation of asthma, throat irritation/cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, inflammation of lungs, and a higher susceptibility to respiratory illnesses. ACGIH classifies it as an A4, or not a suspected carcinogen.

Luckily the results were found to be non-detectable (“IH talk” for none-found). Which only means I didn’t find it, not that it is not there. I sampled for a long time (530 minutes) because they were working 10 hour shifts. But, they only welded for a total of approximately 1.5 hours during that time.

If welders are in a confined area, or a small space with limited ventilation, the results might be significantly different.


Can we measure an exposure accurately with just one sample? (statistically, no.) Also consider: Can we measure a “worst case” scenario and be OK for the rest of the project? (again, hypothetical question)

There was a blog post, here by Mike Jayjock, which reminded me of how silly our data points (aka industrial hygiene sample results) are in the big picture of statistics.  I’m slowly reading a book titled, “Control Banding” by David Zalk who is with Lawrence Livermore National Labs. The CDC also has a section on control banding here.

Another side of this is a common practice we all perform called Risk Analysis. There is much on the subject, but essentially it’s similar to triage at an emergency room. What is the easiest, best thing you can do: given what you have available and what you are able to muster?safety triangle

Too often (myself included) we perform air monitoring for a specific situation and use that information as the gospel-truth. Well, this might be like living in the United States and never traveling. We meet a very nice person from the Ukraine. They seem very typical Eastern European and have a thick accent, but are they really like everyone in Russia? Is this person typical? Are they exactly like every other person from Russia?

This type of stereotyping is the same as taking one sample and drawing conclusions about all exposures. You might be right, BUT…you might be wrong.

There is a fun app you can download called, IH DIG by Adam Geitgey (Apple & Android).  This app illustrates the importance of using statistical tools, rather than guessing. (It’s a game)

Sorry I do not have many answers in this post, just a lot of questions.

I previously wrote about a worst-case scenario in which asbestos was not discovered till after it was disturbed.TSI asbestos

Recently I heard a story of the opposite:

A general contractor hired a company to remove various pieces of asbestos. They had obtained an asbestos building survey, which clearly stated where the  asbestos was located. A boiler with surrounding insulation was identified as non-asbestos containing (asbestos-free). The employee was using a bobcat to demolish the boiler. As he started to tear into the insulation surrounding the boiler (disturb it), he paused. He checked the building survey again, and it had clearly stated it was “asbestos free” (actually 5 samples had been taken of the insulation around the boiler). Then, he did what most other people would not do: HE REFUSED to demo the insulation. He told the General Contractor and owner he thought it was asbestos containing and wanted it tested, AGAIN.

Guess what they found? Yep. Asbestos WAS contained inside the insulation around the boiler.

There was obviously some break-down in communication with the report, inspector, and possibly the lab.  However, this employee is to be commended and, really, the safety culture at this company should be congratulated. You never know where you will find asbestos.  The employee had enough guts to speak up for his safety (and for the others).

Measuring good-safety behavior is the type of thing we should reward. In the past (and still today) many safety-people measure losses ( ie. how many injuries). This is backwards thinking. We should be rewarding good behavior and encouraging people to speak up for safety.

For example; what do you say to this guy?

scaffold ladder

There are some things in occupational hygiene which make our job harder: politics, money, personalities, fiction (not facts), rules/laws and schedules.

However, there is one person who we can blame. Maybe not entirely, but he epitomizes the opposite of protecting people’s health. Thomas Midgley, Jr. Who? Yea, he’s new to me too. Thomas Midgley

This guy has killed millions of people. Maybe not directly, but through his politics and lack of ethics. Here is a great article from Seth Godin on this guy. Essentially he allowed lead to be added to gasoline, AND, helped to provide CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) to products. However, he probably got what he deserved: He died from his inventions. It is easy to look at hindsight and blame him, but at the time, I wonder what he was thinking? My guess is money.

The enemy of Occupational Hygiene is probably not Thomas Midgley. It’s our ethics. If we fail to make the right choice every time, where does that lead us?

If you’re reading this, you probably don’t suffer from an ethical-failure to protect people. (Most people in safety don’t.) Rather, you should pat yourself on the back and keep doing the right thing. Good job.